Tamoxifen for men therapy in male infertility
Tamoxifen for men with idiopathic oligozoospermia. An oligozoospermia decreased number of spermatozoa in semen. In humans it accounts for 40-50% of infertility. It affects approximately 7% of all men. Male infertility is commonly due to deficiencies in the semen, and semen quality is used as a surrogate measure of male fecundity.
More than 90% of male infertility cases are due to low sperm count or poor quality sperm, according to research. Sperm-related problems , such as weak sperm that don’t move quickly enough. They are not formed properly, or that the seminal fluid may be too thick thus preventing easy motility.
Other causes of male infertility may be due to anatomical or psychological problems, hormonal imbalances and possibly genetic defects.
Tamoxifen citrate therapy in male infertility. The combination of tamoxifen plus testosterone was reported to improve the sperm situation. Tamoxifen citrate plus T undecanoate treatment produced a satisfactory improvement of total sperm number, motility, and functional sperm fraction after 3 and 6 months.
The testosterone undecanoate with tamoxifen citrate enhances the effects of each agent given independently on seminal parameters in men with idiopathic oligozoospermia.
What is Tamoxifen
A medication that is used to prevent breast cancer in women and treat breast cancer in women and men. Available as a generic medication. It is listed on the World Health Organization’s of Essential Medicines. It blocks the actions of estrogen, a female hormone. Certain types of breast cancer require estrogen to grow.
Tamoxifen is one of three drugs in an anti-angiogenetic protocol developed by Dr. Judah Folkman, a researcher at Children’s Hospital at Harvard Medical School in Boston.
How does tamoxifen work in treating breast cancer?
Tamoxifen is currently used for the treatment of both early and advanced estrogen receptor (ER)-positive (ER+) breast cancer in pre- and post-menopausal women. The most effective and safe medicines needed in a health system. Although antibiotic resistance is a growing concern in the past few years as the clinicians are over using these meds in their patients. Last year, the World Health Organization warned that we are heading toward a “post-antibiotic era” unless more is done to tackle the issue.
As a prodrug, having relatively little affinity for its target protein, the estrogen receptor (ER). It is metabolized in the liver by the cytochrome P450 isoform CYP2D6 and CYP3A4 into active metabolites such as 4-hydroxytamoxifen which have 30–100 times more affinity with the ER than tamoxifen itself.
Also used to prevent estrogen-related gynecomastia
Tamoxifen is used to prevent estrogen-related gynecomastia, resulting from elevated estrogenic levels. It is taken as a preventative measure in small doses, or used at the onset of any symptoms such as nipple soreness or sensitivity. Other drugs are taken for similar purposes such as clomiphene citrate and the anti-aromatase drugs which are used in order to try to avoid the hormone-related adverse effects. Tamoxifen is also sometimes used to treat or prevent gynecomastia in sex offenders undergoing temporary chemical castration.
Tamoxifen side effects include a small increased risk of uterine cancer
Some cases of lower-limb lymphedema have been associated with the use of tamoxifen, due to the blood clots and deep vein thrombosis (DVT) that can be caused by this medication. Resolution of the blood clots or DVT is needed before lymphedema treatment can be initiated.
Tamoxifen may also cause non-cancerous changes in the uterus. In some women, it may increase the risk of blood clots or endometrial cancer. Tamoxifen for men/ Image Source